Understanding Deferred Prosecution and Plea Bargains in Serbian Criminal Law

Deferred Prosecution (Oportunitet)

Deferred prosecution, commonly referred to as “oportunitet” among legal professionals, is a relatively new concept in Serbian criminal law, introduced under Article 283 of the Criminal Procedure Code (ZKP). This provision allows prosecutors to defer criminal proceedings under certain conditions, which helps streamline the judicial process and provide an alternative resolution to minor offenses.

When Can Deferred Prosecution Be Applied?

According to Article 283 ZKP, deferred prosecution is applicable only to offenses punishable by fines or imprisonment of up to five years. This ensures that the mechanism is used for minor offenses, aligning with its purpose to alleviate the burden on the judicial system and offer a second chance to offenders without severe criminal records.

Deferred prosecution is not applicable to serious crimes, and it does not require the consent of the victim. If the prosecutor and the suspect agree on the terms of deferred prosecution and the suspect fulfills their obligations, the criminal charge is dismissed without the victim having the right to appeal the decision.

Procedure and Obligations

The initiative for applying Article 283 ZKP can come from either the prosecutor or the suspect and their defense attorney. The attorney’s role is crucial in negotiating favorable terms for the suspect, ensuring that the obligations are reasonable and proportional to the offense.

The obligations a suspect might undertake include:

  • Compensating for the damage caused by the offense.
  • Making a monetary donation to humanitarian or public purposes.
  • Performing community service or humanitarian work.
  • Undergoing treatment for substance abuse or violent behavior.
  • Complying with court orders.

The prosecutor sets a deadline for fulfilling these obligations, which cannot exceed one year. If the suspect meets these conditions within the specified time frame, the prosecutor dismisses the criminal charge. Otherwise, the prosecution continues.


Plea Bargains (Sporazum o priznanju krivičnog dela)Introduced in 2009 and amended in 2011, plea bargains are governed by Articles 313-319 of the ZKP. This mechanism aims to increase the efficiency and speed of criminal proceedings by allowing defendants to negotiate a plea deal with the prosecution.

Legal Framework and Procedure

A plea bargain can be negotiated from the issuance of an investigation order until the conclusion of the main trial. The process involves the prosecution and defense reaching an agreement, with the court’s role limited to verifying the legality and fairness of the agreement.

The plea agreement must include:

  • A description of the offense.
  • The defendant’s admission of guilt.
  • An agreement on the type and extent of the penalty.
  • Provisions for covering trial costs, confiscating illegally obtained assets, and settling civil claims.
  • A waiver of the right to appeal against the agreement.

The court can accept or reject the plea agreement based on its compliance with legal requirements. If accepted, the court issues a judgment of guilt; if rejected, the case reverts to the pre-agreement stage, and the negotiation process and all related documents are destroyed.

Potential Issues

Despite its advantages, the plea bargain system faces challenges, such as:

  • The risk of defendants pleading guilty to avoid pre-trial detention, even if they are innocent.
  • The possibility of false confessions to protect actual perpetrators.
  • Limited judicial oversight on the appropriateness of the negotiated sentence, as courts can only verify the legal conformity of the penalty, not its proportionality.

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Both deferred prosecution and plea bargains serve essential roles in the Serbian criminal justice system, providing mechanisms for efficient case resolution and rehabilitation opportunities for minor offenders. However, their implementation requires careful consideration to ensure fairness and justice for all parties involved. The involvement of defense attorneys is crucial in both processes, safeguarding the rights and interests of the defendants while negotiating favorable outcomes.

Legal References

Deferred Prosecution (Article 283 ZKP)

  • Prosecutors can defer prosecution for minor offenses if the suspect fulfills specific obligations within a year.

Plea Bargains (Articles 313-319 ZKP)

  • Plea bargains are negotiated agreements between the prosecution and defense, subject to court approval, aimed at expediting criminal proceedings.

By understanding these legal provisions, legal professionals can better navigate the complexities of criminal law, ensuring just and efficient outcomes for their clients.

For a detailed understanding of how the regular criminal procedure typically works in Serbia, including the investigation phase, indictment process, and trial stages, click on this comprehensive guide. This resource provides valuable insights into each step of the process, ensuring you are well-informed about the legal framework and procedural nuances of the Serbian criminal justice system.

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