Energy: Green Hydrogen in Serbia

Green Hydrogen – The future of renewable energy sources in Serbia

What is green hydrogen?

Hydrogen, which is the most abundant chemical element on the planet Earth, is an element with great potential for energy.

The color “green” given to its name classifies it as hydrogen produced from renewable and “clean” energy sources.

In this context, Green Hydrogen (“GH” or “Green Hydrogen“) is a substance through which energy can be stored and then, if necessary, released in a controlled manner.

So, Green Hydrogen is actually a (carrier) of energy and not the main source of energy.

Green hydrogen in Serbia

As GH is produced from water, the potential for its production in Serbia, according to experts, is quite large. The issue of GH in Serbia is still in its infancy, both in terms of legal regulation and in terms of the practical development of plants for the production of GH.

The Energy Act (“Official Gazette of the RS”, No. 145/2014, 95/2018 – other law and 40/2021 “EA“), in Article 16 recognizes the production of hydrogen as a special energy activity. The following article of the EA stipulates that energy activity may be performed by:

–           Public company;

–            Company, i.e., other legal entity and

–           Entrepreneur.

In addition to the above, the Act on the Use of Renewable Energy Sources (“Official Gazette of the RS”, No. 40/2021) in Article 4 recognizes renewable hydrogen as a renewable energy source
so it can be stated from the above that those energy entities that use GH to perform their energy activities (production and storage of electricity, for example), exercise the rights to incentives provided by the mentioned law.

In the near future, with the development of GH production activities, a more thorough legal regulation of a specific issue can be expected.

How is Green Hydrogen Produced?

GH is, in principle, obtained by electrolysis of water using electricity from renewable energy sources.

There are other types of GH that are produced from biogas using livestock, agricultural or municipal waste.

By the way, the production process is basically not complicated: electrolysis breaks down the H2O molecule through electricity, and in that way, GH is obtained.

Why Green Hydrogen?

GH has a new role in energy because it is a major factor in enabling the functioning of energy systems with a large share of solar and wind power, which fits into the green agendas of the world and Serbia.

The electricity through which GH is produced comes from renewable energy sources, and the very combustion of hydrogen produces water, which makes it the most environmentally friendly fuel.

One of the most important reasons for the recent expansion of Green Hydrogen lies in the fact that it solves problems related to the decarbonization of the energy and industrial sectors.

In addition, GH will be of great importance in ensuring energy independence, primarily by reducing dependence on imports and instability of energy prices, as well as by strengthening the flexibility of the energy system.

Use of Green Hydrogen

The basic idea is for GH to replace fossil fuels at some point. The first step should be to replace all fossil hydrogen currently used in industry, use advanced technologies and reduce costs.

Some of the main uses of GH are:

– Heavy industry – GH will have a very important role in replacing fossil fuels whose heavy industry is a big consumer;

– Energy store – this is undoubtedly one of the most promising applications of GH since it can serve as a seasonal energy storage system;

– Transport – also an extremely promising option for the application of GH, given that some manufacturers are developing fuel cell models and thus GH gets the role of propellant for vehicles;

– Heating – GH can be a solution for both domestic and industrial heating, especially since the existing infrastructure (natural gas network, for example) with minimal modifications can be used to increase demand.

 

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